Evaluation of screening methods for anthracnose fruit rot resistance in chilli (Capsicum spp.)


  • B Vanlalneihi ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru - 560089, Karnataka, India Author
  • P L Radha ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru - 560089, Karnataka, India Author
  • S Sriram ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru - 560089, Karnataka, India Author
  • K Madhavi Reddy ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hesaraghatta Lake Post, Bengaluru - 560089, Karnataka, India Author




Anthracnose, chilli , pin-prick, non-wounding spray, Colletotrichum truncatum, C. gloeosporiodes


Anthracnose fruit rot caused by Colletotrichum spp. is a serious production constraint causing severe marketable yield loss in chilli. Field evaluation of chilli accessions for resistance to Colletotrichum spp. depends on various factors affecting disease expression such as edaphic conditions, temperature, rainfall, humidity and other variables that are difficult to control, therefore considered less accurate. Also, high chances of cross contamination with different Colletotrichum species leads to inconclusive assays for specific pathogen species and isolate. To identify a stable and reliable screening method, various chilli accessions were subjected to in vitro pin-prick and non-wounding spray methods using a specific pathogen isolates. When chilli accessions were screened against C. gloeosporioides isolate ‘IHRCg-1’, the in vitro pin- prick method showed positive correlation with the non- wounding spray method, except in the accession PBC80. The change in bioassay influenced the disease reaction pattern in the accession PBC 80, probably the pin pricks break the basal cuticle defense mechanism that was retained in spray inoculation method indicating varied resistance pattern. However, in the accession PBC 81 stable resistance pattern was observed against isolates of both species viz., C. truncatum ‘IIHR Ct-1’ and C. gloeosporioidesIIHR Cg-1’ and in the accession PBC 80 against C. truncatumIIHR Ct-1’ in both the inoculation methods that depicted the expression of resistance genes during both methods of inoculation. Based on disease development pattern, the red ripe chilli expressed a variant reaction to infection by C. truncatum and C. gloeosporioides. The peak anthracnose infection at 10 DAI and 14 DAI is an accurate duration to record ‘IIHR Cg-1’ and ‘IIHR Ct-1’ infection, respectively on chilli ripe fruit for assaying the resistance.


Download data is not yet available.


AVRDC. (1999). Off-season tomato, pepper & eggplant. In AVRDC Report 1998 (Eds.), Annual Report (pp. 20-30). Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

Chowdappa, P., Chethana, C. S., & Pavani, K. V. (2015). Colletotrichum siamense & C. truncatum are responsible for severe outbreaks of anthracnose on onion in southwest India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(1), 77-86. doi:10.4454/JPP.V97I1.015

FAOSTAT. (2021). Food & Agriculture Statistics. (2021). (Accessed on 25 April 2023). Available from: http://faostat.fao.org

Galvan, G. (2010). Screening onions & related species for resistance to Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In IAEA (Eds.), Mass Screening Techniques for Selecting Crops Resistant to Disease (pp 309-319). International Atomic Energy Agency.

Garg, R., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., Loganathan, M., Saha, S., Kumar, S., & Roy, B. K. (2013). Novel source of resistance & differential reactions on chilli fruit infected by Colletotrichum capsici. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(2), 227-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-012-0194-7

Katoch, A., Sharma, P. & Sharma, P. N. (2017). Identification of Colletotrichum spp. Associated with fruit rot of Capsicum annuum in North Western Himalayan region of India using fungal DNA barcode markers. Journal of Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 26(2), 216-223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13562-016-0384-4

Kim, B. S., Park. H. K., & Lee, W. S. (1989). Resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum spp.) in pepper. In Tomato & pepper production in the Tropics (pp 184–188). Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

Kim, S. H., Yoon, J. B., & Park, H. G. (2008a). Inheritance of anthracnose resistance in a new genetic resource, Capsicum baccatum PI594137. Journal of Crop Science & Biotechnology, 11(1), 13-16.

Lakshmesha, K. K., Lakshmidevi, N., & Mallikarjuna, S. A. (2005). Changes in pectinase & cellulose activity of Colletotrichum capsici mutants & their effect on anthracnose disease on Capsicum fruit. Archives of Phytopathology & Plant Protection, 38(4), 267-279. https://doi.org/10.1080/03235400500094100

Mahasuk, P., Chinthaisong, J. & Mongkolporn, O. (2013). Differential resistances to anthracnose in Capsicum baccatum as responding to two Colletotrichum pathotypes & inoculation methods. Breeding Science, 63(3), 333-338. https://doi.org/10.1270/jsbbs.63.333

Mishra, R., Rout, E., & Joshi, R. K. (2019). Identification of resistant sources against anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum truncatum & Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Capsicum annuum L. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences, 89, 517-524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40011-018-0965-1

Mistry, D. S., Sharma, I. P., & Patel, S. T. (2010). Bio-chemical parameters of chilli fruits as influenced by Colletotrichum capsici (sydow) butler & bisby infection. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(4), 586-587.

Mongkolporn, O., & Taylor, P. W. J. (2018). Chili anthracnose: Colletotrichum taxonomy & pathogenicity. Plant Pathology, 67(6), 1255-1263. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.12850

Mongkolporn, O., Montri, P., Supakaew, T., & Taylor, P. W. (2010). Differential reactions on mature green & ripe chili fruit infected by three Colletotrichum spp. Plant Disease, 94(3), 306-310. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-3-0306

Montri, P., Taylor, P. W. J., & Mongkolporn, O. (2009). Pathotypes of Colletotrichum capsici, the causal agent of chili anthracnose, in Thail &. Plant Disease, 93(1), 17-20. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-93-1-0017

Pedrosa, R. A., Maffia, L.A., Mizubuti, E. S. G., & Brommonschenkel, S. H. (2004). Components of onion resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29, 606-613. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-41582004000600002

Rajapakse, R. G. A. S., & Ranasinghe, J. A. D. A. R. (2002). Development of variety screening method for anthracnose disease of chilli (Capsicum annum L.) under field conditions. Tropical Agricultural Research & Extension, 5(1-2), 7-11. https://dl.nsf.gov.lk/handle/1/7974

Ro, N. Y., Sebastin, R., Hur, O. S., Cho, G. T., Geum, B., Lee, Y. J., & Kang, B. C. (2021). Evaluation of anthracnose resistance in pepper (Capsicum spp.). Genetic Resources Horticulturae, 7(11), 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/horticulturae7110460

Saini, T. J., Gupta, S. G., & Analakshmi, R. (2017a). Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on chilli in India. NCBI Gene Bank ID: MG204566.

Saini, T. J., Gupta, S. G., & Analakshmi, R. (2017b). Colletotrichum species causing anthracnose on chilli in India. NCBI Gene Bank ID: MG282163.

Saxena, A., Raghuwanshi, R., & Singh, H. B. (2014). Molecular, phenotypic & pathogenic variability in Colletotrichum isolates of subtropical region in north eastern India, causing fruit rot of chillies. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 117(5), 1422-1434. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/jam.12607

Saxena, A., Raghuwanshi, R., Gupta, V. K., & Singh, H. B. (2016). Chilli anthracnose: the epidemiology & management. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1527. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01527

SB. (2023). Spice Board of India. (Accessed on 12 March 2023) Available from http://www.indianspices.com/spice-catalog/chilli-1.html

Sharma, P. N., Kaur, M., Sharma, O. P., Sharma, P., & Pathania, A. (2005). Morphological, pathological & molecular variability in Colletotrichum capsici, the cause of fruit rot of chillies in the subtropical region of north western India. Journal of Phytopathology, 153(4), 232-237. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2005.00959.x

Souza, L. C. S., Assis, L. A. G., de Moraes Catarino, A., & Hanada, R. E. (2019). Screening of chilli pepper genotypes against anthracnose (Colletotrichum brevisporum). Emirates Journal of Food & Agriculture, 919-929. https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2019.v31.i12.2039

Susheela, K. (2012). Evaluation of screening methods for anthracnose disease in chilli. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 18(2), 188-193.

Suwor, P., Thummabenjapone, P., Sanitchon, J., Kumar, S., & Techawongstien, S. (2015). Phenotypic & genotypic responses of chili (Capsicum annuum L.) progressive lines with different resistant genes against anthracnose pathogen (Colletotrichum spp.). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 25-736. https://doi.org/doi:10.1007/s10658-015-0723-7

White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S. J. W. T., & Taylor, J. (1990). Amplification & direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. PCR protocols: a guide to methods & applications, 18(1), 315-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-372180-8.50042-1






Original Research Papers

How to Cite

Vanlalneihi, B., Radha , P. L., Sriram, S., & Madhavi Reddy, K. (2023). Evaluation of screening methods for anthracnose fruit rot resistance in chilli (Capsicum spp.). Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 18(2). https://doi.org/10.24154/jhs.v18i2.2037

Similar Articles

1-10 of 87

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)