Journal of Horticultural Sciences <p align="justify">The <a href="">Journal of Horticultural Sciences</a>&nbsp; (ISSN 0973-354X) is an Open Access journal published biannually by the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Society for Promotion of Horticulture</a>&nbsp;hosted at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (<a href="">ICAR-IIHR</a>), Bengaluru 560089, India.</p> Society for Promotion of Horticulture en-US Journal of Horticultural Sciences 0973-354X <p>Authors own the copyright and grant the journal, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">JHS</a> and the society, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SPH</a> non-exclusive right to publish and distribute under the <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a> <a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a></p> Interdependence in Horticultural Research Vageeshbabu S Hannur Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 i ii Post harvest loss and marketing of fruits - economic analysis of pink flesh guava in local and distant markets in India <p>Guava produced in Bengaluru in Karnataka is also transported to distant markets like Cochin in Kerala and Chennai in Tamil Nadu. An assessment of post harvest loss (PHL) was done in these markets. The main marketing channel followed was:<br>Producer  PHC  Distant Market WS Retailer  Consumer<br>Marketing practices followed in marketing of pink flesh guava and losses occurring at the wholesale (transit) and retailers’ level (storage) in the distant market - Kerala were studied from wholesalers and retailers. The PHL at the wholesalers’ level was observed to be 3.6 per cent mainly due to pressed and crushed fruits during transit. The retail level loss was 4.59 per cent which was mainly due to storage for more than two days resulting in decaying, rotting, yellowing etc. Average price received by the wholesaler was Rs.29.92/kg with a margin of Rs.6.21/kg (20.75%). The retailers received a price of Rs.46.54/kg with a margin of Rs.16.35/kg (35.13%). Marketing practices followed in marketing of pink flesh guava and losses occurring at the wholesale (transit) and retailers’ level (storage) in the distant market - Chennai (Tamil Nadu) were studied with wholesalers in Coimbeedu market and retailers in different parts of Chennai. The PHL at the wholesalers’ level was observed to be 4.62 per cent mainly due to pressed and crushed fruits during transit. The retail level loss was 6.09 per cent which was due to pressing of fruits during handling. The wholesaler received a margin of 22.91 percent in trading of guava fruits. The retailers received a margin of 45.72 per cent. The Karnataka farmers can take advantage of the higher prices prevalent in the distant markets and increase their income. Pathological investigation indicated that losses occurred at different stages of handling due to Styler end rot, Anthracnose, Canker, thrips attack etc., which needs to be addressed. The storage losses of pink flesh guava were estimated as 5.89 % after 4 days of storage at room temperature (24-32°C) that constituted mainly the physiological loss in weight (PLW). Spoilage started after 5 days of storage (10.5 %) and reached to 28.31 % by 6 days of storage. After 4 days of storage, guava fruits lose weight to the extent of 6 per cent and the spoilage starts after 5 days. Hence, care should be taken to dispose of the fruits within five days of harvest.</p> T M Gajanana D Sreenivasa Murthy M Sudha A K Saxena DV Sudhakar Rao V Dakshinamoorthy Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 1 6 Soft wood grafting - A novel and rapid multiplication technique in Coorg mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) <p>Coorg mandarin is commercially multiplied by shield or T budding. The process of shield budding will takes eighteen to twenty months for the production of quality planting material. Hence present experiment was conducted to standardize soft wood grafting in Coorg mandarin to reduce the nursery phase for rapid multiplication of quality planting materials. In this study, two to three months old terminal shoots of Coorg mandarin were grafted on one, two, three and four months old rootstocks of Rangpur lime.The soft wood grafting on three and four months old rootstocks were recorded cent per cent graft success and higher plant survivability (98%) and minimum was noticed in one month old rootstocks. The plant height (45.77 cm), plant girth (0.60 cm), number of leaves per plant (42.9), number of side shoots per plant (5.65), root length (33.15 cm) and root spread (8.29 cm)<br>were also found maximum on four months old root stocks followed by three month old rootstocks. Age of rootstocks have significant difference (P=0.05) for plant weight, shoot weight and root weight in both fresh and dry weight basis.The above findings revealed that, four months old rootstocks are more suitable for soft wood grafting in terms of graft success and plant traits. Soft wood grafting can be gainfully exploited for rapid multiplication of good quality planting material by reducing the nursery phase.</p> B M Muralidhara IN Doreyappa Gowda Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 7 12 Evaluation of Solanum species and eggplant cultivated varieties for bacterial wilt resistance <p>Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the major diseases in Solanum species including cultivated Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). Bacterial wilt (BW) disease management in eggplant is difficult due to high survival rate of pathogen in soil and chemical application is not eco-friendly. The best way to avoid bacterial wilt in eggplant is using disease-resistant varieties. However, only a limited number of bacterial wilt resistant varieties are available and, there is a necessity to identify and/or develop new resistant varieties. In the current study, wild Solanum species, and eggplant cultivated varieties were evaluated against Ralstonia solanacearum, and disease incidence was recorded. The cultivated varieties IIHR-108, Pusa Purple Long and Rampur Local were identified as susceptible, whereas, IIHR-7 and CARI-1 were identified as resistant to bacterial wilt. These resistant wild and cultivated varieties can be used as a root-stock in bacterial<br>wilt disease resistant breeding programmes.</p> T H Singh DC Lakshmana Reddy C Anand Reddy A T Sadashiva P Pandyaraj Y B Manoj Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 13 19 Effect of cultivars on tree growth, yield and quality attributes of apple on espalier architecture under high density planting system <p>Annual extension growth (AEG), an indicator of tree vigor, was recorded maximum (145.63 cm) in Granny Smith and minimum (111.04cm) in Spartan, where as correlation matrix showed negative relation between trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) and AEG. Granny Smith exhibited maximum (184.09 g) fruit weight and it was minimum (128.68 g) in Spartan, the correlation matrix between fruit weight and yield efficiency exhibited significant positive correlation over the years. Yield tree-1 was maximum (29.45 kg tree-1) in Coe red Fuji and minimum (16.04 kg/tree) in Spartan. Significant and positive correlation coefficient (0.870) observed between yield and TCSA. TCSA has positive correlation with fruit weight and yield efficiency, maximum mean yield efficiency (1.11 kg/cm2) was recorded in Granny Smith. All the cultivars trained on this architecture had high chroma values (color intensity).</p> K K Srivastava Dinesh Kumar S R Singh O C Sharma Copyright (c) 2019-06-21 2019-06-21 14 1 20 25 Correlation of trunk cross sectional area with fruit yield, quality and leaf nutrient status in plum under North West Himalayan region of India <p>An experiment was conducted to study the correlation of trunk cross sectional area (TCSA) with fruit yield, quality and leaf nutrient status in plum at ICAR-Central Institute for Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir during 2013-14. The TCSA (110.45, 118.23, 123.45, 131.67, 139.25, 146.82, 152.37 and 161.26 cm2) was based on their trunk girth at 15 cm above the ground. Maximum canopy volume (23.14m3 and fruit number 128/ tree) were recorded when TCSA was highest (161.26cm2). Maximum fruit weight (58.85g) was recorded with 123.45cm2 TCSA. Fruit yield and productivity efficiency (59.47kg/ tree and 0.29kg/ cm2) were recorded with 152.37cm2 TCSA. Fruit size (47.45 x 44.12mm), pulp weight (57.54g) and pulp/stone ratio (43.92) were recorded with 123.45cm2 TCSA. Maximum TSS (19.450B), total sugar (13.98%) and reducing sugar (11.46%) were recorded with 161.26 cm2 TCSA. Non-reducing sugar (2.53%) was recorded with 118.23cm2 TCSA. Higher leaf nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content (2.38, 0.19 and 1.95%) was observed with 161.26 cm2 TCSA. A positive and significant correlation was noticed between TCSA and canopy volume (0.995), fruit number (0.992), yield (0.968), pulp/stone ratio (0.903), TSS (0.977), total sugar (0.937), reducing sugar (0.920), non-reducing sugar (0.048), leaf N (0.971), leaf P (0.977) and leaf K (0.997) value in plum variety Santa Rosa under North West Himalayan region of India.</p> Dinesh Kumar K K Srivastava S R Singh Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 26 32 Metabolite profiling in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) pollen grains in relation to viability <p>Mango productivity is affected mainly by irregular flowering, proportion of bisexual flowers, poor pollination and fertilization and fruit drop. Poor fruit set in some of the varieties may be associated with the lower pollen viability. The present experiment was initiated to assess the viability of pollen grains and their metabolites in three mango cultivars Amrapali, Alphonso and Totapuri which are differing in their fruit set intensity. The profiling of sugars, amino acids and some of the phytohormones were analysed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Assessment of pollen grains in three mango cultivars indicated that free sugars such as fructose and glucose, and available amino acids including serine, proline, lysine, phenylalanine, alanine and glutamic acid were predominantly higher in all the cultivars. Phytohormones like IAA, IBA, ABA, GA,<br>zeatin, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were significantly different in low fruit setting cultivars Alphonso and Totapuri compared to high fruit setting cultivar Amrapali. In cv. Alphonso all the metabolites were higher at anthesis but later decreased drastically compared to cvs. Totapuri and Amrapali. Pollen viability percentage was significantly higher in cv. Amrapali than in cvs. Totapuri, Alphonso. Among all the cultivars, Amrapali maintained better chemical composition at anthesis and also at two hours after anthesis compared to cvs. Totapuri and Alphonso.</p> K S Shivashankara G A Geetha T K Roy Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 33 42 Sweet cherry cultivars influenced the growth and productivity under HDP <p>In a field experiment, to identify the best sweet cherry varieties for high density orcharding, maximum canopy volume (18.94 cm3) was recorded in variety ‘Steela’ and minimum in ‘Lambert’ while, ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ had maximum TCSA (213 cm2). Trees grown under HDP have lower TCSA in comparison to normal density. Primary and secondary branch girth were maximum in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ whereas, annual extension growth and shoot thickness were high in ‘Steela’. Yield, yield efficiency and cumulative yield efficiency were registered maximum in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’ and ‘Bigarreau Noir Grossa’ cultivars. Largest fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter were found maximum (10.16 g/fruit), (25.51 mm) (25.20 mm) respectively in ‘Bigarreau Napoleon’. Total soluble solids were found maximum in ‘Bigarreau Noir Grossa’ (17.30 0Brix) among the studied cultivars. Correlation matrix showed that TCSA had positive correlation with canopy volume, primary branch girth and secondary branch girth and fruit weight showed positive correlation with fruit length and fruit diameter.</p> K K Srivastava Dinesh Kumar P Barman Copyright (c) 2019-06-20 2019-06-20 14 1 43 47 Heterosis and combining ability for yield and its related traits in ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (L.)Roxb.] <p>Line × Tester analysis involving three lines and four testers was carried out in ridge gourd [Luffa acutangula (Roxb.) L.]. Significant variation was noticed in the mean performance of the parents and hybrids for all the characters studied except for vine length and fruit girth. The results from GCA and SCA variance indicated the predominance of non-additive gene action for all the traits except fruit girth. Significant heterosis of 177.78% over standard check, Arka Sumeet for fruit weight per plant was expressed by the cross GARG-1 × CO-1. The best general combiners were GARG-1 and Pusa Nutan among the lines, and Jaipur long and CO-1 among testers. Best specific combining ability effects for fruit length and yield (t/ ha) were recorded by the crosses Pusa Nasdar × Arka Sumeet and GARG-1 × CO-1.</p> Varalakshmi B Pitchaimuthu M Sreenivasa Rao E Copyright (c) 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 14 1 48 57 Development of Digital Repository and Retrieval System for Rose Germplasm Management <p>Live repository of rose consisting of different genotypes and species of roses available across the globe has been established at ICAR-IIHR. All these genotypes have been characterized for 60 morphological characters for description of these varieties. Along with the live repository of plants, efforts have been made to develop digital repository of all these genotypes. The digital repository consists of description of characters, quantitative measurement for selected important characters and images for all the descriptors. A web-enabled interface has been developed for the selective retrieval of accessions with desired characters, and also for retrieval of all the information for the selected genotype. The information system will be useful across the germplasm collection centers, for the breeders and other end users by enabling them to select the appropriate germplasm and<br>avoid duplicates.</p> Radhika V Tejaswini . Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 58 68 Effect of trichomes in cowpea on infestation by spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) <p>Trichomes are the morphological features present on the surface of plants, which provide resistance to several insect pests. A pot culture experiment with 48 cowpea accessions were conducted to evaluate the effect of trichomes in cowpea on infestation by spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata. Significant variation in terms of damage to pods due to spotted pod borer was observed. The number of trichomes per unit area was significantly and negatively correlated (-0.441) with per cent damage. However, the length of trichomes on pods has no significant correlation with per cent damage.</p> Nasiya Beegum AN Madhu Subramanian Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 69 72 Performance of Anthurium (Anthurium anderanum Lindl) cultivars under hill zone of Karnataka <p>An investigation was carried out at experimental block, College of Horticulture, Mudigere. Tropical recorded maximum LAI 2.83, and had maximum plant height, number of leaves, leaf area and Leaf area Index. Cultivar Crinkle Red recorded maximum number of flowers per plant per year (13.14), which was on par with Tropical (11.77), Cheers (10.60) and Fire (10.25). Cultivar Midori recorded maximum vase life (35.00 days) followed by Tropical (33.33 days) and it was on par with Fire (32.22 days). Cultivar Midori recorded maximum vase life (35.00 days), followed by Tropical (33.33 days) and it was on par with Fire (32.22 days) and highest B:C ratio is recorded in cultivar Tropical (1.83) and it was least in Fantacia (1.13) .</p> S K Nataraj Kirtimala B Naik HS Yallesh Kumar Y S Ramesha Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 73 74 An assessment of fruiting and polyembryony in Langsat (Lansium domesticum Corr.) from Nilgiris, India <p>In this paper we report the fruit characteristics and seed polyembryony in langsat, Lansium parasiticum (syn. Lansium domesticum Corr.). This fruit tree belongs to the family Meliaceae in order Sapindales and is considered to be native of western South East Asia and is common in both wild and cultivated forms throughout Malaysia and Philippines where the fruits are very popular and the tree is being utilized in reforestation efforts. It is also grown in southern Thailand and Vietnam and flourishes in the Nilgiris and other humid areas of South India. In the present investigation we report the morphological and biochemical parameters of the plants and fruits obtained from State Horticultural Farm, Buliar (latitude 11.34; longitude 76.79) in Tamil Nadu, at elevation of 360 m MSL and receiving average annual rainfall of 125.14 cm. The plantation was established in the year 1900 and consists of various tropical trees like mangosteen, langsat, arecanut, coffee, silveroak, pepper, cinnamon in tier system of planting.</p> Kanupriya . Pushpa Chethan Kumar Anuradha Sane Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 75 78 Mineral content of red skinned potatoes of Eastern India <p>Potato tuber colour is an important factor that influences consumer preferences. Eastern plain region of India contributes about 50% of total potato acreage and production. Consumers in this region generally prefer red skinned varieties. Growing awareness for nutrient rich food can create a niche market for nutritious potatoes. Potato is crop of choice for mineral biofortification owing to better mineral bioavailability due to its high ascorbic acid and minimal phytate content. Iron and zinc are the essentially required minerals for good health. Considering the nutritional importance of these elements and wider prevalence of their deficiency in Indian sub-continent, thirteen Eastern regions red skinned advanced hybrids and varieties were evaluated to find the genetic diversity for iron and zinc content. A significant wide range of contents was observed for both the elements. High heritability of both mineral suggests feasibility of selecting genotypes for breeding nutrient rich varieties. Identified genotypes can be utilised as parental lines for future breeding programme and can be released as nutrient rich potato variety.</p> Dalamu . J Sharma S Kumar S K Luthra A K Sharma V Sharma V K Dua Copyright (c) 2019-06-30 2019-06-30 14 1 79 82