Journal of Horticultural Sciences 2019-06-06T05:43:53+00:00 Dr. Vageeshbabu H.S. Open Journal Systems <p align="justify">The <a href="">Journal of Horticultural Sciences</a>&nbsp; is an Open Access journal published biannually by the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Society for Promotion of Horticulture</a>&nbsp;hosted at the ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (<a href="">ICAR-IIHR</a>), Bengaluru 560089, India.</p> Diversified experimentation in horticulture 2019-05-31T12:07:56+00:00 Vageeshbabu S Hanur <p>This issue yet again marks a compendium of articles on diverse crops and aspects in<br>horticulture. This multifariousness or the absence of monotony is indeed a mark of dynamism in<br>science experimentation, especially and specially in the field of horticulture.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol. Standl.) germplasm 2019-05-31T12:07:56+00:00 B Varalakshmi M Pitchaimuthu E Sreenivas Rao <p>The present investigation was conducted to determine the variability, heritability, genetic<br>advance and correlation of fruit yield and ten different yield contributing characters in bottle<br>gourd. Wide range of variation was observed for most of the characters like fruit yield/vine,<br>fruit number/vine, fruit weight, fruit yield/ha and node number for first female flower<br>appearance. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation<br>for all the traits studied, indicating environmental influence on expression of these characters.<br>However, high heritability (broad sense) along with high genetic advance was recorded by vine<br>length, branch number, fruit length, fruit width, fruit yield/vine and yield/ha indicating the<br>presence of additive gene effects, hence selection can be employed for the improvement of<br>these parameters. Fruit yield/ ha was significantly and positively associated with fruit number/<br>vine and fruit yield/vine both at genotypic as well as phenotypic levels. Fruit number had<br>maximum direct effect (0.812) on fruit yield/ha followed by fruit weight (0.407), fruit length<br>(0.339), fruit width (0.310), fruit yield/vine (0.249), days taken for first female flower appearance<br>(0.224) and vine length (0.173). Therefore for the yield improvement in bottle gourd, emphasis<br>may be given for indirect selection through fruit parameters like fruit weight, fruit length,<br>fruit number and fruit yield/vine.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mining of miRNAs using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data generated for Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) 2019-05-31T12:07:56+00:00 Rekha Gupta M Gayathri V Radhika M Pichaimuthu K V Ravishankar <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved non-coding RNA molecules involved in the<br>regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Gene expression involves post-transcriptional<br>gene regulation by miRNAs. miRNAs are formed from precursor RNA molecules that fold into<br>a stem loop secondary structure. The mature miRNA is one end of the precursor miRNA,<br>defined by the cut from ‘Drosha’ on either the 5’ or 3’ arm. In this study, we have used a<br>bioinformatics approach to identify miRNAs in 3,361 contigs obtained from partial genome<br>sequence data of Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) sequenced by NGS technology. Using C-mii<br>and psRNA Target tools, we identified two miRNAs and their target RNAs for which a regulatory<br>miRNA binding has been verified. Their targets consisted of transcription factors involved in<br>growth and development, gene regulation and metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis of the newly<br>identified miRNA family has been done to compare their level of conservation with respect to<br>the other members of the plant kingdom.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## First report on incidence of inflorescence blight and pod rot (Choanephora infundibulifera) on dolichos bean (Dolichos lablab, L.) and yard long beanin (Vignaunguiculata sub sp. sesquipedalis) India 2019-05-31T12:07:56+00:00 P S Kurian P Anitha K O Liji F Davis <p>Inflorescence blight and pod rot caused by Choanephorasp. were recorded in two major vegetable<br>crops viz.dolichos bean and yard long bean at a very high degree of severity. Usually, the<br>disease occurs in mild proportions without causing economic loss during rainy season in Kerala<br>(June to September) affecting vegetable crops like cowpea and bhendi. However, during the<br>year 2016, the disease was noticed with a very high severity of more than 90 per cent on two<br>crops grown at two different locations in Thrissur district of Kerala during October to January.<br>None of the commonly used fungicides could control the disease. The pathogen was found to be<br>luxuriantly growing on the inflorescences of dolichos bean and on the fruits of yard long bean.<br>The first incidence of the disease was recorded during the last week of October, 2016. The<br>disease spread was almost cent per cent on susceptible genotypes of dolichos bean and more<br>than 90 per cent in variety ‘Vaijayanthi’ of yard long bean. A study was conducted exploring<br>the pre disposing factors leading to the occurrence of the disease in epidemic proportions.<br>Meteorological factors affecting the disease were studied and it was found that there is positive<br>correlation of the disease severity with increasing atmospheric temperature and rainfall.<br>Atmospheric temperature more than 30oC along with high humidity and rain fall during the<br>preceding week are found to be the major pre disposing factors lead to the epidemic in both<br>the crops. The pathogen was isolated and based on morphological characters, identified as<br>Choanephora sp. Pathogenicity was proved by inoculation on healthy inflorescence stalks.<br>Molecular characterization of the pathogen confirmed the identity as Choanephora<br>infundibulifera. This is the first report of the pathogen on dolichos bean and yard long bean in<br>India.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of post harvest ripening on bioactive secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity in mango cv. Amrapali 2019-05-31T12:07:56+00:00 B M Muralidhara G L Veena S Rajan A K Bhattacherjee Pavan Kumar Malav <p>Mango possesses many bioactive phytonutrients at ripe stage which boost our immune system<br>against many diseases. Post harvest ripening plays a major role in changes in those bioactive<br>phytochemicals and their antioxidant activity. Hence, the present study was undertaken to<br>assess the changes in bioactive phytonutrients and total antioxidant activity during ripening<br>of mango cv. Amrapali. The fruits were analyzed for total antioxidants, total phenols, total<br>flavonoids and total carotenoids from the day of harvest to its deterioration. Fruit peel and<br>pulp color was measured with SPH850 spectrophotometer on the basis of the CIE LAB color<br>system (L*, a* and b*). The results revealed that total phenols (36.11 to 66.53mg GAE 100g-1),<br>total flavonoids (14.33 to 34.67mg QE 100g-1), total carotenoids (2.23 to 11.47mg 100g-1) and<br>total antioxidant (0.37 to 0.76 mmol Trolox 100g-1) activity increased gradually from day one to<br>ninth day after harvest and decreased slightly thereafter up to eleventh day of harvest except<br>total carotenoids, which remained constant. Strong correlations between total phenols (0.94),<br>total flavonoids (0.86) and total carotenoids (0.97) with total antioxidant activity were noticed.<br>Positive relationship between total carotenoids and L*, a*, b* values in mango peel and pulp<br>during ripening was also observed. It can be concluded that ripening affected the composition<br>of bioactive phytonutrients and their antioxidant activity in mango andmaximum nutraceuticals<br>contents were noticed from seven to nine days after harvest.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance evaluation of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) in the plains of Kerala 2019-05-31T12:07:57+00:00 S Jalaja Menon S N Shibana <p>Kerala, the spice bowl of India is popular for tropical spice crops like pepper, cardamom,<br>nutmeg etc. Garlic, an important foreign exchange earner of India is produced mostly in<br>the states like Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. In Kerala it is grown commercially<br>in two unique rain shadow pockets, Kanthalloor and Vattavada regions of Devikulam<br>block of Idukki district. Although garlic is grown in the high ranges of Kerala, its<br>cultivation in plains are not evaluated so far. Generally cool season crops performs well<br>inplains when grown during October – March. Hence the present study was conducted to<br>evaluate the performance of two genotypes Singapore and Mettupalayam in the plains.<br>The two garlic genotypes were grown as pot culture during October – February in the year<br>2016-2017, in the plains of Thrissur district, the central part of Kerala. Among the two<br>types Mettupalayam was found to be recorded higher Bulb weight (14.53g) and number of<br>cloves per bulb (4.2), but it was less compared to that grown in high ranges (17.19g and<br>11.9 respectively). Hence the study revealed the possibilities of garlic cultivation in the<br>plains of Thrissur district of Kerala with some refinements in agro techniques.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Screening of probiotic strains for development of ready- to -serve probioticated mango beverage 2019-05-31T12:07:57+00:00 K Ranjitha Harinder Singh Oberoi K K Upreti K Redappa <p>Out of the thirteen probiotic strains procured from different sources or isolated from the<br>commercially available sachets, seven isolates showed growth in the ready to serve (RTS)<br>mango beverage. Among the seven strains, only three strains, i.e., Lactobacillus helveticus<br>MTCC 5463, L. rhamnosus MTCC 5946 and Saccharomyces boulardii showed significant growth<br>in the mango beverage. These three strains were further evaluated for population build-up,<br>physico-chemical and sensory evaluation parameters in the fermented mango beverage. Based<br>on the results of sensory scores, minimum threshold population required for classification as<br>probioticated beverage and physico-chemical characteristics, L. helveticus was used for<br>probiotication of the RTS mango beverage. Mango beverage fermented with L. helveticus MTCC<br>5463 showed an average score of 7.34 on a hedonic scale of 9 for overall acceptability, had an<br>acidity of 0.29%, sugar concentration of 7.6% and pH of 4.4. Probioticated mango beverage<br>also had about 20 and 13% higher phenolics and flavonoids, respectively, compared to<br>uninoculated RTS mango beverage. This study has shown that the RTS mango beverage<br>inoculated with L. helveticus MTCC 5463 has potential for developing probioticated mango<br>beverage.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of sprigging density and foliar nitrogen on the growth of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. x Cynodon transvaalensis) 2019-05-31T12:07:57+00:00 D Dhanasekaran <p>Turf grasses have been utilized by humans to enhance their environment for more than 10<br>centuries. Aesthetically, lawns enhance the quality of life, contribute to social harmony and<br>community pride, increase property values and compliment other landscape plants. The beauty<br>of any garden largely depends on the greenness of the lawn. The first and foremost criteria for<br>a well establishment and a satisfactory lawn are selection of suitable grass species and methods<br>of its establishment. Hence, an experiment was laid out to study the effect of different sprigging<br>density and foliar nitrogen on the growth and establishment of bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon<br>L. Pers. x Cynodon transvaalensis) in floriculture unit of the Department of Horticulture, Faculty<br>of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu during the year 2013-2015. Bermuda grass<br>sprigs were planted in different spacing levels and foliar spray of urea with twelve treatment<br>combinations comprising of different levels viz., 10 x 10 cm with 1%, 1.5% and 2%; 15 x 15 cm<br>with 1%, 1.5% and 2%; 20 x 20 cm with 1%, 1.5% and 2%; 25 x 25 cm with 1%, 1.5% and<br>2%, in factorial randomized block design with three replications. From the results, it was<br>found that the earliest spread and ground cover were observed in planting sprigs at closer<br>spacing of 10 x 10 cm in combination with foliar application of nitrogen in the form of urea as<br>2 % for two times at seven and fifteen days after planting.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Variation in the Interactions among soil K+, Ca++, Mg++ and Na+ ions as influenced by the variety and rootstock in grape 2019-05-31T12:07:57+00:00 S D Shikhamany J N Kalbhor T S Shelke T S Mungare <p>A nutritional survey was conducted to study the influence of variety and rootstock on interaction<br>among K+, Ca++, Mg++and Na+ ions in grape during 2012-14. Soil cation contents did not correlate<br>with their respective contents in petioles indicating a strong antagonism among them. Quadratic<br>relationship of soil cations with the absorption (ratio of petiole content to soil content) of other<br>ions revealed that the antagonism among cations was observed in case of soil K+ with Ca++ and<br>Na+ absorption on 110R and Dog Ridge rootstocks, soil Ca+ with K+ and Mg++ and Na+ in Sonaka<br>variety and Na+ in own rooted vines, soil Mg++ with Ca++ and Na+ also in own rooted vines; and<br>Na++ with Ca++ and Mg++ respectively in 2A clone and Dog Ridge. Contrarily, increased absorption<br>of K+ by soil Ca++ on 110R, Na+ and K+ by soil Mg++ respectively in Sonaka and 110R, and Ca++<br>by soil Na+ on Dog Ridge was also observed. All the soil cations together influenced K+ absorption<br>most in Sonaka followed by Mg++ absorption in 2A clone, but Ca++ absorption on Dog Ridge<br>followed by K+ on 110R.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quality in Coriander leaves as influenced by growing conditions 2019-06-06T04:14:10+00:00 R Surya T Geethumol P Anitha <p>A study was conducted in the plains of Kerala to investigate the performance of coriander leaf<br>for its quality aspects in open and rain shelter conditions. The study suggested that significantly<br>higher herbage and biomass yield (g/ plant) was observed from plants grown in rain shelter<br>(9.21 and 12.78) compared to the open field (8.41 and 11.34). Among the varieties, Arka Isha<br>recorded the highest herbage and biomass yield (10.46 and 14.13g/plant) followed by CO-1<br>(8.97and 12.70).There was a significant higher vitamin C content (mg/100g) in open field<br>(189.72) compared to rain shelter ( 124.55) and volatile oil ranging from 0.05-0.06 % in both<br>the growing conditions and were on par. Total chlorophyll content was recorded more in open<br>field (1.98) than in rain shelter (1.92) Among the varieties, total chlorophyll was more in CO-<br>4(2.33). However, this need to be confirmed by further studies.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of moringa infusion for green tea and its evaluation 2019-06-06T04:17:41+00:00 Pushpa Chethan Kumar Shamina Azeez T K Roy <p>Moringa oleifera leaves are known for its high nutritional quality. Its leaves are commonly<br>used for culinary purposes and it was explored as a potential nutraceutical in recent decades.<br>Tea or herbal infusions have become an integral part of daily diet for a population who concerned<br>about a healthy lifestyle. Many herbs or plant parts have been used as infusions which provide<br>health promoting phytochemicals to the consumers. Therefore moringa infusions were prepared<br>along with some herbs/flavouring agents such as tulsi, ginger and lemon grass. Total polyphenol<br>content in the infusions ranged between 685 and 1567 mg GAE/100 mL. Among phenolic acids<br>detected, gallic acid was highest in all the treatments. Infusion containing moringa and tulsi<br>scored high in organoleptic evaluation. Thus, moringa infusion can become an add-on variety<br>to the tea/herbal infusion consumers.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Seed yield and quality as affected by weed management practices in bitter gourd 2019-06-06T04:21:31+00:00 P Anitha S Nirmala Devi P Sainamole Kurian <p>Effect of weed management practices on seed yield and quality of bitter gourd var. Preethi was<br>studied during 2016-17. The results showed that highest seed yield (0.73t/ha) was recorded in<br>the treatment Pendimethalin @0.75 a.i. /ha plus one hand weeding at 40 DAS followed by<br>mulching using black polythene (0.65t/ha) which were on par. The lowest seed yield (0.18t/ha)<br>was in weedy check. Weed control efficiency was highest (100%) in mulching with black<br>polythene followed by application of pendimethalin +one hand weeding at 40DAS (97.97).<br>Seed quality in terms of percentage germination (82.52) , vigour index I(1924.15) and Vigour<br>index II ( 27.24) were significantly superior in mulching with black polythene and was on par<br>with weed free check and application of Pendimenthalin + one hand weeding at 40 DAS.<br>Highest seedling length (26.10cm) and seedling fresh weight (2.45g) were also recorded in the<br>same treatment. However, there was no significant difference between treatments for seedling<br>dry weight.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) genotypes under coastal ecosystem of Tamil Nadu 2019-06-06T05:18:36+00:00 C T Sathappan <p>Genetic variability existing among genotypes is the prime and basic factor for the improvement<br>of any character in a successful breeding programme of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.).<br>Though the attempts made so far to exploit the available variability have culminated in the<br>release of a few improved region specific selections as varieties from different centers in<br>India, still, varieties suited to coastal eco-system are yet to be identified. Hence, an experiment<br>was laid out to study the performance of 21 genotypes of Polianthes tuberosa L. collected from<br>varied geographical locations. The trial was conducted in the floriculture unit of the Department<br>of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University under randomized block design<br>replicated thrice to assess the genetic variability for eleven economic characters. The results<br>showed that the genotype PT-15 recorded relatively superior mean performance with respect<br>to all characters. High PCV and GCV were observed for number of leaves per plant, plant<br>height and rachis length. Low variability in terms of PCV and GCV was observed for length of<br>the flower and time taken for flowering. High PCV and GCV values of more than 60 per cent<br>was observed for bulb volume followed by yield of flowers per plant, rachis length and duration<br>of flowering. The genotypes viz., PT-15 (Kuzhumani, Thiruchirappalli District), PT-3<br>(Ravanthavadi, Dharmapuri District) and PT-10(Perumalpatti, Dindugul District) were identified<br>as superior genotypes which are suitable for the coastal region based on per se values and can<br>be utilized for future breeding programmes.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of configuration of calyx in cowpea flowers on infestation by spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) 2019-06-06T05:25:28+00:00 A N Nasiya-Beegum Madhu Subramanian <p>Twenty cowpea accessions were evaluated for resistance to the spotted pod borer, Maruca<br>vitrata in the Department of Agricultural Entomology, College of Horticulture, Kerala<br>Agricultural University, Thrissur. The calyxes of the flowers were examined and the accessions<br>were categorized into two groups, partially free (major portion of the sepals free, the basal<br>portion tight) and semi tight (major portion of the sepals tight, only the tip free). Significant<br>variation was observed in terms of damage to cowpea flowers due to spotted pod borer. The<br>highest extent of flower damage (50.39 %) was recorded in case of Bhagyalakshmy.<br>Categorization of the different accessions on the basis of the configuration of calyx indicated<br>that EC 100092, Palakkadanthandanpayar, TVX – 944, EC 300039, IC 20645 and IC 52110 had<br>semi tight calyx characterized by tight sepals with tips alone being free. All these accessions<br>had consistently low levels of infestation ranging from zero to 3.16 per cent. The accessions C<br>– 152, Kanakamony, PKM – 1, Anaswara, IC 20431, Sreya, Hridya, Mysore local, IC 52105,<br>Kashikanchan, Vellayani Jyothika, Malika, Bhagyalakshmy and Lola had major portion of<br>sepals free with their basal portion tight. Hence, they were grouped as partially free. Free<br>sepals would provide the first instar borer larvae some extent of concealment as well as enable<br>it to bore into the flower more easily. Tight calyx, thus, could possibly have a deterrent effect<br>on the first instar larvae entry.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Occurrence of powdery mildew disease of Gerbera in Kerala 2019-06-06T05:38:21+00:00 N M Praveen Reshmy Vijayaraghavan S Beena S Krishnan <p>A purposive sampling survey on the hilly tracts of Wayanad, Kerala revealed the existence of<br>powdery mildew disease in gerbera crops, grown under both protected and open field condition.<br>Among the other fungal diseases of gerbera, powdery mildew disease causes decisive damage<br>to the ornamental cut flower crop, thereby decline in the industrial value of the crop. Symptom<br>of the disease include as white powdery mat on the upper surface of leaf lamina that gradually<br>turned pale yellow to brown. Powdery mildew existed in two locations of Wayanad viz.,<br>Ambalavayal and Chulliyode where highest per cent disease severity (PDS) of 50.72 was<br>observed at Chulliyode and 47.2 per cent was observed at Ambalavayal during November-<br>December. In Ambalavayal, the disease was non-significant and no correlation existed between<br>weather parameters and disease progress. But, in Chulliyode, correlation studies revealed that<br>it was significant with positive correlation to relative humidity and a reverse relation existed<br>with temperature and rainfall. The weather data clearly depicts that at a low rainfall of 96 mm<br>and above average relative humidity of 80.27 per cent during November-December was the<br>congenial factor influencing the disease development. But during summer, decline in relative<br>humidity (78.37%) and rainfall (63.13 mm) caused a slight reduction in mean per cent disease<br>severity of 49.12 per cent and 33.6 per cent at Chulliyode and Ambalavayal respectively.<br>Morohological and cultural characters of the pathogen depicts presence of two distinct organism<br>viz., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Erysiphe cichoracearum) and Podosphaera sp. as the<br>causative organism of the disease. Golovinomyces cichoracearumproduced hyaline, septate<br>mycelia with globose conidia with irregular peripheral end formed in a chain and Podosphaera<br>sp. produced superficial, hyaline, coenocytic mycelium with oval or ellipsoidal, catenate conidia<br>with dimension ranging from 22.1-30.18 x 13.36-18.08ìm formed in unbranched erect<br>conidiophores.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of growth regulating chemicals on growth and flowering in Jasmine (Jasminum sambac.Ait.) 2019-06-06T05:43:53+00:00 D Dhanasekaran <p>Jasmine is an important commercial flower crop in Tamil Nadu. The crop has a main flowering<br>season during March to October and an off-season from November to February. During this<br>off-season, flowering is very poor or there is no flowering in many growing areas. In recent<br>years, growth regulators are valuable in floriculture for manipulating growth and flowering of<br>many crops and hence and attempt has been made to induce flowering during off season using<br>growth regulators in Jasmine in the Floriculture unit of the Department of Horticulture, Faculty<br>of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu during November, 2016 to February, 2017.<br>The treatment comprises of three concentrations of each of two growth promoting substances<br>viz., NAA and GA3 and two growth retardants (Cycocel and Maleic Hydrazide). The experiment<br>was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. Among the various treatments,<br>application of NAA @ 75 ppm (T6) recorded the highest plant height (130.6 cm and 178.5 cm at<br>90 and 180 DAP respectively), number of primary shoots (21.68 and 35.68 at 90 and 180 DAP<br>respectively), number of nodes (9.86 and 15.89 cm at 90 and 180 DAP respectively) and number<br>of leaves (1250.0 and 2689.5 at 90 and 180 DAP respectively). Earliness in flowering (26.38<br>DAP) and maximum duration of flowering (171.00 days) was noticed in (GA3@ 150 ppm T3).<br>From the above studies, it is inferred that application of GA3 @ 150 ppm could be recommended<br>for enhanced growth and higher flower yield in Jasminum sambac.</p> 2019-05-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##