Optimization of explants, media, plant growth regulators and carbohydrates on callus induction and plant regeneration in Citrus jambhiri Lush.


  • G S Sidhu Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004, India Author
  • P K Malhotra Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004, Punjab, India Author
  • H S Rattanpal Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141004, Punjab, India Author




Callus, carbohydrates, Citrus jambhiri, explants, redifferentiation


Callus induction was attempted from the four explants viz. root, cotyledon, epicotyl, and leaf segments excised from in vitro raised seedlings of C. jambhiri. Among various MS media supplementations with growth regulators and carbohydrates, the maximum (95.50%) and the earliest (8.30 days) callogenesis was obtained in epicotyl segments, when cultured on MS medium supplemented with NAA (10.0 mgl-1) + BAP (1.0 mgl-1) + sucrose (8%). The modified MS (macro and micro-nutrients reduced to half) fortified with BAP (5.0 mgl-1) + GA3 (3.0 mgl-1) recorded maximum shoot regeneration (43.10%) from callus, with an average of 5.30 shoots per callus after 35.50 days of culturing. However, prolonged exposure to GA3 resulted in thin elongated shoots and leaves. The age of the callus substantially influenced the plant regeneration frequency. The potency of the callus to regenerate decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the callus. Shoot regeneration was recorded maximum (43.43%) in 60 days old calli, followed by 90 days old (30.48%) calli, whereas it was minimum (10.46%) in 150 days old calli. The maximum (79.50%) shoot proliferation was recorded in MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mgl-1) + Kin (0.5 mgl-1) with an average of 5.06 shoots per culture. The MS medium fortified with NAA (1.0 mgl-1) + IBA (1.0 mgl-1) induced maximum (77.33%) rooting, with an average of 3.19 roots per shoot after 13.4 days of culturing. Rooted plants were hardened and survived the best (83.6%) on the potting mixture consisting of cocopeat + vermiculite + perlite (2:1:1).


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Original Research Papers

How to Cite

Sidhu, G. S., Malhotra, P. K., & Rattanpal, H. S. (2023). Optimization of explants, media, plant growth regulators and carbohydrates on callus induction and plant regeneration in Citrus jambhiri Lush. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 18(1), 162-172. https://doi.org/10.24154/jhs.v18i1.2159

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