Genotype variations in biomass production and nutrient removal pattern in gladiolus raised from cormels


  • S Sujatha ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Author
  • T M Rao ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Author
  • Rajiv Kumar ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Author
  • T R Rupa ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research Author



Biomass partitioning, Cormels, Genotypes, Gladiolus, Nutrient removal


The present study was conducted at ICAR-IIHR, Bengaluru, India during 2018-2019 to quantify resource use efficiency in 11 genotypes of gladiolus propagated through cormels based on growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient removal pattern. Growth and yield parameters differed significantly among genotypes. The leaf number was significantly higher in Arka Shobha (9.67) and Arka Manorama (9.00) than other genotypes (6.33-8.67). The spike length was higher in Arka Naveen (102.9 cm) and lesser in Arka Kumkum (66.2 cm). The pattern of biomass partitioning indicated that below ground biomass (corm) accounted for 71.5% of total biomass (3990 kg ha-1), while above ground biomass (leaf and spike) was 28.5% of total biomass (1137 kg ha-1). In gladiolus genotypes, the nutrient profile indicated that the accumulation of N was higher in corms followed by leaves and spikes. The accumulation of P (0.13-0.14%), Mn (29.8-43.5 mg kg-1), Zn (15.3-23.4 mg kg-1) and Cu (5.2-6.0 mg kg-1) was similar. Spikes accumulated higher K and Mg than leaves and corms. The accumulation of Ca was more in leaves (2.39%) followed by flower stalks (1.95 %). The average Fe concentration (mg kg-1) was more in corms (293) followed by leaves (269) and flower stalks (160). The average nutrient removal in genotypes was quantified at 122 kg N, 10.8 kg P and 71.7 kg K per ha per crop. The nutrient demand (g ha-1) of Fe was more (1062.4) than Mn (152.5), Zn (23.8) and Cu (23.0). The data implies that gladiolus is a heavy feeder of N and K. Nutrient removal of K and Fe influenced the biomass production with high degree of variability (Y =-541.858 + 24.097 Kuptake + 1.405 Feuptake R2=0.995). The present study gives scope for precision nutrient use by avoiding blanket recommendations.


Download data is not yet available.


Afify, M. M. 1983. Effect of high fertilizer rates on the growth and flowering of three gladiolus cultivars. Kerleszefi Egyatem Kkozlemenyel 47(13): 75-85

Baldotto, M.A. and Baldotto, L.E.B. 2013. Gladiolus development in response to bulb treatment with different concentrations of humic acids. Revista Ceres 60:138-142.

Bastug, R., Karaguzel, O. Aydinsakir, K. and Buyuktas, D. 2006. The effects of drip irrigation on flowering and flower quality of glasshouse gladiolus plant. Agric. Water

Manage. 81:132–144.

Brink, G.E., G .A. Pederson, K. R. Sistani, and T. E. Fairbrother. 2001. Uptake of selected nutrients by temperate grasses and legumes. Agronomy Journal 93, 887–890 Chanda, S.

Barma, G. and Roychowdhury, N. 2000 . Influence of different level of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on growth and flowering of gladiolus. The Horti. J. 13(1): 76-86.

Das, A., Baiswar, P., Patel, D.P., Munda, G.C., Ghosh, P. K. and Chandra, S. 2010. Productivity, nutrient harvest index, nutrient balance sheet and economics of lowland rice (Oryza sativa) as influenced by composts made from locally available plant biomass. Inbd. J. Agric. Sci. 80(8), 686-690.

Das, T. K. 1998. Corm and cormel production in gladiolus as affected by spike removal and K application. Indian J. Hort. 55(4): 327-331

Feil, B., S. B. Moser, S. Jampatong, and P. Stamp. 2005. Mineral composition of the grain of tropical maize varieties as affected by pre-anthesis drought and rate of nitrogen fertilization. Crop Science 45, 516–523.

Gupta, P, Neeraj, R. and Dheeraj, R. 2008. Effect of different levels of vermicompost, NPK and FYM on performance of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. Happy End. Asian J. Hort. 3:142-143.

Jackson, M. L. 1973. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

Lindsay, W. L., Norvell W. A., 1978. Development of DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 421–428.

Memon, N. Qasim , M., Jaskani , M. J., Rashid Ahmad and Iftikhar Ahma d (2009) Enhancement of corm and cormel production in gladiolus (Gladiolus spp.), New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 37(4): 319-325.

Mukherjee, S., Jona, S. C. and Chatterjee, T. K. 1998. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus dose on production of flowers and corms of gladiolus. Indian Agriculturist 36(3): 211-213 NHB. 2018. Area and production statistics of horticultural crops. National Horticulture Board. New Delhi.

Piper, C.S. 1966. Soil and Plant Analysis. Hans Publishers, Bombay.

Priyakumari, I. and Sheela, V.L. 2005. Micropropagation of gladiolus cv. ‘Peach blossom’ through enhanced released of axillary buds. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 43: 47–50

Satapathy, S.P., Toppo, R., Dishri, M., and Mohanty, C.R. 2016. Impact of integrated nutrient management (INM) on flowering and corm production in gladiolus. Biometrics Biostatistics Int. J. 4(7): 1-19.

Shah, A., S. D. Lal and Seth, J. N. 1984. Effect of different levels of nitrogen and phosphorus on growth, flowering and corm yield of gladiolus cv. Vinks Glory. Progressive Horticulture. 16(3/4): 305-307

Shankar deo and Dubey, P. 2005. Effect of NPK, FYM and NPK+FYM on growth, flowering and corm yield of Gladiolus when propagated through cormels. J. Soils and Crops 15(1)-34-38.

Singh Rahul, Mukesh Kumar, Sameeksha Raj and Sanjay Kumar. 2013. Effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) on growth and flowering in Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandifloras L.) cv. “White Prosperity” Annals of Horticulture 6(2): 242-251.

Singh, K. P. 1996. Studies on size of cormel and levels of nitrogen on corm multiplication in gladiolus. Adv. Plant Sciences 9(2): 241-243

Singh, W., Sehrawat, S. K., Dahiya, D. S. and Singh, K. 2002. Leaf nutrient status of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) cv. Sylvia as affected by NPK application. Haryana J. Hort. Sci. 31(1-2): 49-51.

Sujatha S., T. Manjunatha Rao, Rajiv Kumar and T. R. Rupa. 2020c. Resource use indicators and carbon stocks in different genotypes and species of gladiolus for precision farming. J. Plant Nutrition 43 (17): 2645-2663

Swapnil Bharti, Urfi Fatmi and Devi Singh. 2017. Suitability of cut corms as planting material on flowering, corm and cormel production in Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) Varieties. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 6(8): 2935-2939.

Walkley, A., Black, I. A., 1934. An examination of degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37:29-37.

Watanabe, F.S. and Olsen, S. R. 1965. Test of ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and sodium bicarbonate extracts of soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 29: 677-678






Original Research Papers

How to Cite

Sujatha, S., Rao, T. M., Kumar, R., & Rupa, T. R. (2022). Genotype variations in biomass production and nutrient removal pattern in gladiolus raised from cormels. Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 17(1), 110-117.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 199

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>