Optimization of freeze drying parameters for moringa (Moringa oleifera) flower powder by using response surface methodology and principal component analysis
Keywords:Dehydration, Freeze drying, moringa flower, nutraceutical, response surface methodology.
Moringa oleifera Lam. is an incredible plant because of vital nutrients such as minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. The present work is focused on studying the optimization and quality attributes retention in moringa flowers in a freeze dryer (FD). Because the conventional drying process takes more time and energy which will affect the product quality and safety. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the effect of drying temperature (- 65 to - 45°C), vacuum pressure (0.5 to 2.5 mmHg) and drying time (18 to 24 h.) on the vitamin C, total antioxidant activity(TAA) and hygroscopicity (HS) of moringa flower. The developed model response R2 values of vitamin C 0.96, total antioxidant activity 0.97 and hygroscopicity0.95. Based on response surface and desirability (0.74) functions, moringa flower was freeze sdried at - 63.75°C for18 hr under 0.55 vacuum pressure had an optimum level of vitamin C 285.84 mg/100g, TAA 453.20 mg/100g and HS 1.57 percent. Freeze dried moringa flower powder at -55°C had maximum drying characteristics with special reference to high powder recovery (98.75%) and excellent flowability.The first principal component, accounting for 52.15 per cent and two 23.02 per cent of the total variance resolved the different drying temperatures.
Ademiluyi, A. O., Aladeselu, O. H., Oboh, G. and. Boligon, A. A. 2018. Drying alters the phenolic constituents, antioxidant properties, α‐amylase, and α‐glucosidase inhibitory properties of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf. Food Science Nutrition. 6(8), 2123-2133.
Adeyey, I. A. and Omolayo, F. O. 2011. Chemical composition and functional properties of leaf protein concentrates of Amaranthushybridus and Telfairiaoccidentalis. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 2151(7517), 500-511.
Cai, Y.Z. and Corke, H. 2000. Production and properties of spray-dried Amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Food Science. 65(6), 1248 -1252.https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2000.tb10273.x.
Chakraborty, S., Uppaluri, R. and Das, C. 2020. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) process for the recovery of bioactive compounds from bitter gourd using response surface methodology (RSM). Food and Bio products processing. 120, 114-122.
Chegini, G. and Ghobadian, B. 2005. Effect of spray-drying conditions on physical properties of orange juice powder. Drying Technology. 23(3), 657-668.
Farooq, F., Rashid, N., Ibrar, D., Hasnain, Z., Ullah, R., Nawaz, M. and Khan, S. 2022. Impact of varying levels of soil salinity on emergence, growth and biochemical attributes of four Moringa oleifera landraces. Plos One Journal. 17(2), e0263978.
Grabowski, J., Truong, V.D. and Daubert, C. 2006. Spray- drying of amylase hydrolyzed sweet potato puree and physicochemical properties of powder. Journal of Food Science. 71, E209 - E217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2006.00036.x.
Hedhili, A., Akinyemi, B. E., Otunola, G. A., Ashie-Nikoi, P. A., Kulkarni, M., Husson, F. and Valentin, D. 2022. Moringa oleifera Lam.: A comparative survey on consumer knowledge, usage, attitude and belief in Africa and India. South African Journal of Botany. 147, 153-162.
Kinki, A., Mezgebe, A. and Lema, T. 2020. Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Herbal Teas Formulated from Dried Moringa (Moringa Stenopetala) and Stevia (Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni) Leaves. Food Science and Quality Management. 10.7176/FSQM/102-01.
Klungboonkrong, V., Phoungchandang, S. and Lamsal, B. 2018. Drying of Orthosiphonaristatus leaves: Mathematical modeling, drying characteristics, and quality aspects. Chemical Engineering Communications. 205(9), 1239-1251. https://doi.org/10.1080/00986445.2018.1443080.
Manju, K. M. and Kumar, N. 2021. Effect of fluidized‐bed and freeze‐drying techniques on physicochemical, nutritional, thermal, and structural properties of Moringa oleifera flowers, leaves, and seeds. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 45(9), e15719.
Okpe, E.C., Asadu, C.O. and Onu. C.E. 2018. Statistical analysis for orange G adsorption using kola nut shell activated carbon. Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society. 1–9. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/22243682.2018.1534607.
Potisate, Y., Kerr, W. L. and Phoungchandang, S. 2015. Changes during storage of dried Moringa oleifera leaves prepared by heat pump‐assisted dehumidified air drying. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 50(5). 1224-1233. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12744.
Ramarao, K. D. R., Somasundram, C., Razali, Z., Kunasekaran, W. and Jin, T. L. 2022. The antioxidant properties and microbial load of Moringa oleifera leaves dried using a prototype convective air-dryer. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 103290.
Ranganna, S. 1986. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable.
Rosario, R. D. and Flores, D. M. 1981. Functional properties of flour types of mung bean flours. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 32. 172-180. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740320213.
Seerangurayar, T., Manickavasagan, A., Al-Ismaili, A. M. and Al-Mulla, Y. A. 2017. "Effect of carrier agents on flowability and microstructural properties of foam-mat freeze dried date powder." Journal of Food Engineering. 215. 33-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.07.016.
Sifat, S. A., Trisha, A. T., Huda, N., Zzaman, W. and Julmohammad, N. 2021. Response surface approach to optimize the conditions of foam mat drying of plum in relation to the physical-chemical and antioxidant properties of plum powder. International Journal of Food Science.
Silva, M. A., Ayed, C., Foster, T., Camacho, M. D. M. and Martínez-Navarrete, M 2019. The impact of freeze-drying conditions on the physico-chemical properties and bioactive compounds of a freeze-dried orange puree. Foods. 9(1). 32.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pandidurai G, Amutha S, Kanchana S, Vellaikumar S, Prabhakaran K
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright. Articles published are made available as open access articles, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This journal permits and encourages authors to share their submitted versions (preprints), accepted versions (postprints) and/or published versions (publisher versions) freely under the CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license while providing bibliographic details that credit, if applicable.